P#2 ALSTONS, SCOTT & CO. This firm was founded in 1848 by J. B. Alston and Alex. Scott who were joined in 1853 by George Alston.
Following the slump in coffee in 1853 owing to the abolition of the preferential duty on coffee in Great Britain and the fall in the price per cwt from 105/= to 48/=, internal trouble developed in the firm. The partnership was dissolved in or about 1854 and two new firms were established.
(a) Alston Scott & Co., which closed down in 189f
(b) A. & B. Scott & Co., which eventually sold out to Alston Scott & Co. in 1871.
From the name ALSTONS being expressed in the plural, the leaden tokens would appear to have been issued after the arrival of George Alston in 1853 and before the dissolution of the partnership in or about 1854.

P#8 BAKER & HALL. This token discloses an interesting history. In 1850, J. L. Strachan, an Engineer, started on his own account, mills for curing coffee and general engineering work. This grew into J. L. Strachan & Co. in which Thomas Hudson was a partner. Hudson was then living at Polwatte.
J. F. Baker, a former assistant in an important coaling firm at Port Said, came to Ceylon and took over the office management of the Colombo Commercial Co., Ltd. (See token No. 22.) In 1879 Baker started his own business as a coffee and general merchant at Polwatte Mills, formerly in the occupation of Thomas Hudson. In the year 1881, Baker took into partnership his brother-in-law T. Watson Hall and the business was carried on under the style and name of Baker Sc Hall. In 1886 they removed their business from Polwatte to another property Known as Cotanchina Mills. Messrs. Baker Sc Hall closed down in 1904.
Polwatte is now the home of the Sisters of St. Margaret.

P#9-10 BIRD, George. The GB tokens are tentatively associated with George Bird, one of the earliest planters in Ceylon. George Bird was the second brother of Colonel Henry Bird, Deputy Commissioner-General to His Majesty's Forces in Ceylon during the Governorship of Lieut.-General Sir Edward Barnes K.C.B. (1824-1831).
The first coffee estate in Ceylon was opened in 1821 at Sinnapitiya near Gampola under the management of George Bird. Later, he opened the land at Kondasale, and Pussellawa. In 1862 George Bird was at Gampola, the place from which the tokens possibly originate, as Lowsley (No. 4) makes special mention of the fact that he only found specimens at Kandy.

P#11-13 BORRON, A. G. K. Archibald Glen Kidson Borron was a coffee planter at Crystal Hill at Matale. The fourth son of William Geddes Borron, J. P., of Scafield Tower, Ardrosan, Scotland, A. G. K. Borron died in Ceylon 16 May 1872. The ``Borron Memorial Hall'' at Matale Town was erected in the year 1895 to commemorate the universal respect with which he was regarded.
Borron took a prominent part in the discussion of matters relating to the planting community and was an important figure in their affairs.

P#14 CAREY, STRACHAN & CO. This firm was established in 1869 under the name of Carey and Strachan, the partners being L. St. George Carey and Charles Strachan. In or about 1873 the name was changed to Carey, Strachan & Co.
L. St. George Carey died in 1875, and in 1887 the name of the firm was again changed, this time to Charles Strachan & Co.
In 1896, a company was formed in London, the objects being to acquire, carry on and develop certain tea estates, the central tea factory known as the Galaha Factory, the freehold property known as the Union Mills, and the General and Agency business of Charles Strachan & Co.
The Union Mills, Union Place, Slave Island, Colombo, employed over 500 hands for curing coffee etc.

P#15 CARSON, MORRIS & CO. R. B. Carson, an assistant in 1857 of A. & B. Scott (see No. 88) left this firm in 1860 to start a small import business on his own under the title Carson & Co. Ltd. His office was in Baillie Street, Fort, Colombo. G. B. Carson and George Morris were his assistants. In 1864, G. B. Carson and George Morris left the firm and R. B. Carson then became associated with C. A. Morris under the name and style of Carson, Morris & Co.
The development of the importing side of the business was continued, the connections at this time consisting to a large extent of Manchester houses exporting cotton goods. An estates agency bad also been started some years earlier and it is perhaps to this side of the business that the Borella Mills token refers.
C. A. Morris retired in 1871 and R. B. Carson decided upon a reconstruction. Another partner was brought into the business and the firm name was changed to Carson & Co. The firm continued under this name until 1913 when it was formed into a limited company. This was the first example of the conversion of an Agency firm in Colombo into a limited liability company.

P#17-19 CEYLON COMPANY LTD. This company was established in 1863 to take over the extremely successful enterprises of G. and M. B. Worms of 19 Baillie Street, Colombo (1842-1862).
The Ceylon establishment was managed by J. Mercer and C. B. Smith. The company undertook the following business
(1) Advanced money to owners of Coffee Estates upon condition that the produce be consigned to the Company for curing and for sale.
(2) Advanced money on coffee crops growing and gathered, under the same conditions as (1) above.
(3) Undertook the Agency and General management of Estates and also the receiving and disposing in London or Ceylon of consignments of coffee and other produce.
In 1883 the Company owned St. Sebastion Mills for Coffee and Grandpass for Tea. Successfully operated for many years, a new Company was formed in 1888 under the title of The Eastern Produce and Estates Co., Ltd.

P#20-21 CEYLON PLANTATION CO. This was one of the earliest companys floated in Ceylon for the cultivation of coffee, cinchona, and later, tea.
It was under the auspices of the Ceylon Plantation Company that the great George Wall (see Nos. 107-110) took up the acting managership on his arrival in Ceylon in 1846. The office of the company was in Kandy and George Wall took up his residence at Haramby (or Aramba) House which was subsequently occupied by the Kandy Club in the nineties and is now the Hotel Suisse. Wall was manager of the company until he went to Colombo in 1850 to open his own business.

P#22 COLOMBO COMMERCIAL CO., THE. The Colombo Commercial Company was founded in London and Ceylon by John Burn, an engineer, who was born in Aberdeen. Burn had gained considerable experience since 1848 in coffee planting and in 1876 he opened his own business in Colombo on premises purchased, namely, Acland House and grounds covering l3} acres at Slave Island, which was formerly the mess of the Ceylon Rifle Regiment.
During the early years of the Company's progress, the Slave Island Mills handled coffee, tea and artificial manures.

P#23 CORBET, R. J. R. J. Corbet was a well known and leading Ceylon planter. The token was issued for the Gongalla Kanda coffee estate in the Kotmale District which covered about 788 acres. Corbet served as a Member of the Legislative Council and was a Chairman of the Planters Association. On the 1st September 1877 he filed in the District Court at Colombo, the historical case of Corbet V The Ceylon Co., Ltd., for the recovery of Rs. 300,000 damages and to obtain a full and detailed account of the agency of the estates and to recover possession of the estates known as Menickwatte, Wanarajah, Kolapatama, Gongalla, Devon, Redigama and Ettrick Forest, the whole being of an aggregate value of Rs. 1,500,000, and costs. After 12 years litigation the final judgement was given in April 1888, in favour of the plaintiff with costs.

P#27-28 DARLEY, BUTLER & CO. Edward J. Darley, who came to Ceylon in 1836 was in charge of the Piece-goods Department of the first firm to invest in land — Ackland, Boyd & Co. (1829-1847). When Ackland, Boyd & Co. failed, Darley received the agencies of the coffee estates then in the hands of the firm and started business on his own account under the style of Darley & Co.
In 1848-49, Samuel Butler, who came out in 1837, was admitted to the business when the name and style of the firm was changed to Darley, Butler & Co.
From the outset the firm, infer alia, had embraced Ceylon produce and their success was substantial. Very large gains were made during the American Civil War and during the subsequent famine of cotton in Manchester. Darley, Butler & Co. had a mill called New Maddema (Slave Island) for coffee, oil and plumbago. The tokens were possibly issued for service in this mill.

P#35 FOWLIE, RICHMOND & CO. In 1848 J. B. Dowdall and C. B. Cargill established a partnership business in Colombo under the name of Dowdall, Cargill & Co. In 1854 the firm was reconstructed under the name of Nicol Cargil & Co., with a T. S. Richmond as an assistant. Good business was done for some years and the firm acquired some good coffee estates, but in 1864 the firm suffered through the failure of the London house. Large sums loaned by the firm could not be repaid due to the coffee slump and the partnership of Nicol Cargil & Co. was voluntarily liquidated, the balances, assets and properties being divided between two partners T. S. Richmond and J. C. Fowlie, who started business in 1866 under the name Fowlie, Richmond & Co. In 1875, Fowlie, Richmond & Co, along with several other firms had to close down. The younger members of the firm started business on their own under the name of William Law & Co. In 1883 the Jampetteh Mills belonged to this last company.

P#36 FREUDENBERG & CO. This firm was founded on the 1st July 1873 by Philipp Freudenberg, the Imperial German Consul of the time in Colombo. Originally, only produce of Ceylon coffee on continental account was handled, but eventually other branches of trade were taken up such as the export and import of most articles, and the manufacture of oil and artificial manures.
The oil mills and manure works at Hultsdorf covered 13 acres of land. These oil mills were originally founded by a David Wilson in 1835. In the sixties they passed into the hands of Messrs. Antony Gibbs Sc Sons, London, and they were leased by them to Messrs. G. Sc W. Leechman (see tokens Nos. 63-66). G. Sc W. Leechman held the oil mills until 1885, when they were leased in 1886 by Freudenberg & Co. who eventually purchased them in 1896. The oil mills were totally destroyed by fire in 1898. Rebuilt on a more extensive scale and equipped with the most up to date machinery the mill remained in the hands of Freudenberg & Co. until the Great War (1914-1918). The mills and other assets of the company became enemy property in 1914.
In Ceylon, these pieces are regarded, not as tokens, but as clocking-in tickets.

P#38 GREEN, J. P. & CO. In 1883 J. P. Green & Co. owned a mill for coffee at Konupitiya with a labour force of 450 hands. The partners of the firm were J. P. Green, Staniforth Green, with A. P. Green and G. H. Green as assistants.
From the information given by Lowsley, the Colpetty mills of J. P. Green & Co, must have passed later into the hands of Lee Hedges & Co. (see No. 61).

P#48-49 J. H. & G. S. These initials have not been identified. The Gona Adika is an estate
of over 1,000 acres situated in Kadngannawa District. It appears for the first time in the Ceylon
Almanac for the year 1860, the proprietor being T. R. Tucker. In 1883 the proprietors were A. G. Milne & Co. of London, who acquired many of the important interests of Keir Dundas & Co. when that firm went into liquidation.

P#52-59 KEIR, DUNDAS & CO. This firm was established in Kandy in 1854 as estate agents, general merchants and forwarding agents, the original partners were :-
Simon Keir, who was a planter in 1850
G. H. Dnndas and Captain John Keith Jolly.
The office was situated in Kings Street. The firm owned a large number of coffee estates as well as acting as Agents for other properties. So large was their enterprise that they were referred to locally as the Kings of Kandy.
From 1864-66 the firm's resources were heavily strained consequent upon the dislocation of trade at the close of the American Civil War. Many fine properties changed hands at this period, and the estates on which the firm had claims had no buyers. To protect these claims, Keir Dundas & Co. bought in many properties including the Upland Mills and the St. Sebastian Mills in Colombo. Their commitments became so large, that in the face of the collapse of coffee, the firm had to transfer both assets and liabilities to London supporters and the local business was taken over in 1866 under the name of Duncan, Symons & Co., the partners being John Duncan and C.E.H. Symons, late Licut. RA, Trincomalee. Symons was the designer of the tokens which were struck in the last year of the firm's name, of Keir Dundas & Co.
The new firm failed to weather the fierce financial storm of 1869-72, and in 1873 it went into liquidation, the establishment being taken over by a firm styled Duncan, Anderson & Co.

P#61-62 LEE, HEDGES & CO. The inception of this firm dates back to 1857 when W. D. Lee started business in Colombo for Brice and Boustead of London. In 1866 he admitted J. R. Hedges as partner and from that year the firm became known as Lee, Hedges & Co.
The firm had a branch in Kandy and soon built up an attractive estate agency business, they also had a large coffee curing business, On the death of Lee in 1871, G.A.M. Hedges, brother of JR. Hedges, came into the firm but in 1877, the partnership was dissolved and JR. Hedges left Ceylon in 1880.
The firm had two Mills in Colombo. The earlier one at Konupitiya called Colpetty, a coffee and oil mill, employing about 600 hands, the other, the Dematagode Coffee Mills employing about 400 hands. In 1880 the Dematagode Mills were given up, but the Colpetty Mills continued and in 1894 it was known as Konupitiya Coffee Curing Mills, Cinnamon Press, Tea Factory and Dessicated Coconut Manfactory. In 1927, Hedges Buildings arose on the site of the old mills to house the firm's office staffs.

P#63-66 LEECHMAN, G. & W. This firm originated in a Company called ``The Hultsdorf Mills Co. (Ceylon) Ltd.'' founded in London to develop the Mill called ``Belmont Oil Mill'' (in Belmont Street) founded in 1835 on a tract of land on the banks of the Canal at Hultsdorf. The name of Hultsdorf itself commemorates the name of General Hulft (Governor of Ceylon during the Dutch regime).
On the death in 1840 of the founder of the Mill, the new management christened it as ``Hultsdorf Mills, Colombo '', the name perpetuated by the vulcanite tokens. Crushing machinery for coconut oil was installed. A saw mill was erect and in 1855 soap making was added to the mill's activities. In 1865 when the Hultsdorf Mills Co. went into liquidation the property was acquired by G. B. Leechman who with his brother William Carey Leechman as partner, founded the firm of G. Sc W. Leechman. It is the initial letters of the name of this firm which appear on the tokens.
In 1886 a new competitor in the person of Philipp Freudeoberg entered the field (see Token No. 36). He took out a lease of the Hultsdorf Mills and later, in 1896, purchased the premises. In the meantime, Leechman had erected a modern mill at Grandpass.

P# 67 MACKWOODS & CO. The name Mackwood is unique in the Mercantile history of Ceylon. The firm was founded in 1841 by Captain William Mackwood, who started business as a merchant and agent. He was joined by his younger brother, Francis Mackwood, in 1844. This event was apparently the cause of the plural name appearing on the tokens as it was in the case of Alstons, Scott & Co. (see No. 2). However, the ``S'' of Mackwoods was dropped about 1874 and the firm became known as Mackwood & Co.
In 1845 William Mackwood livved at Maradahn House, there also stood the Maradahn Mills, two miles from Colombo, for whose use the tokens were struck.

P#80-82 ROBERTSON, J. M. & CO. The coffee planting enterprise was at its zenith in 1845-48, but in 1848 with the introduction of free trade in Great Britain, the preferential duties of coffee were cut away. At this time coffee was selling on the London market at about £ 1 per cwt. less than the cost of prodnction. Consequently, many estates became bankrupt.
J. Murray Robertson came to Ceylon to look after the interests of the Baring Brothers of London who had invested large sums in Ceylon. On his arrival in Ceylon he established his office in Prince Street, Colombo, in 1849, and thus founded the firm of J. M. Robertson & Co.
The business expanded rapidly. The firm had an extensive general merchant's trade. A large coffee-curing and oil business, for which purpose they employed a considerable labour force at the Vauxhall Mills (V.M.), the Oil Yard (O.Y.) near the Vauxhall Mills (Slave Island), the Wolfenden Mills and the Maligahande Stores.
The Wolfenden Mills, were found to be superfluous and after a time all the coffee curing was done at the Vauxhall Mills. The Oil Yard was kept partly for storage purposes, partly for drying coffee, and later for baling and storing cinchona bark.
The Maligahande Store was used in its later period for storing manures, etc., till the site was acquired for the purpose of building the Reservoir which now supplies part of the water requirements of Colombo.

P#85 RUDD BROS. The Rudd family had very early connections with Ceylon. William Rudd, an engineer, landed in Ceylon in January 1832. He took up coffee planting in the up country districts and on his death in 1877, his son R. P. Rudd acquired his interest. An uncle of William, one Henry Rndd, also had a carriage building establishment in Colombo and his son, another Henry Rudd, was also a planter.
It has not been possible to trace the family connections of the firm of Rudd bros., but in the directory of 1876 they are shown as the owners of the Ibanwala Mills.

P#86-87 SABONADIERE & CO. ``As the manager of the great Delta Coffee property of Baron Dalmer in the ``forties'' and ``fifties'', and subsequently an estate proprietor and head of a mercantile house, SabOnadiere has been for a period of over half-a-century connected with the Coffee Industry. The collapse of coffee brought misfortune to him as to so many others, and amidst trying physical suffering, the closing years of his life were devoted to the task to enable him to say ``I owe no man anything'.'' Such was the remarks of the Ceylon Observer in 1891 when reporting the death at Colombo of F. R. Sabonadiere who took over as many of the Agencies that could be saved from Dickson Tatham & Co. together with the lease of Ambawatte House and Mills, when this firm went into liquidation in 1866 (see No. 102).
Francis Richard Sabonadiere founded the firm of Sabonadiere & Co. in 1869. He was the son of a Pastor of the Reformed Church of France and arrived in Ceylon in 1839. He devoted his time to planting activities for over 17 years, until he was relieved by his brother William Augustus Sabonadiere. As a practical planter he obtained the agency of a large number of estates, so much so, that in 1883, the firm headed the list of Estate Agencies, dealing with the produce of 117 estates. It may be mentioned that his brother W. A. Sabonadiere was the author of a manual on coffee planting which was the accepted handbook in its day for the industry. This book was dedicated to F.R.S. and was published in 1886 in Guernsey, their family home.
Sabonadiere & Co. employed over 690 hands at each of their Mills at Ambawatte and Maddema situated at Slave Island, Colombo.
All went well with the firm till the gradual decay of the coffee industry through disease hemileia vastatrix. With the consequent failure of the Oriental Bank Corporation, the firm bad to suspend payment on 4 Sept. 1884. It was succeeded immediately by Messrs. Cumberbatch & Co.

P#88 SCOTT, A. & B. & CO. Founded about 1854 from Alston Scott & Co. (see No. 2) the firm did not prosper so well as the parent firm and a few years later the name was changed to Alex and Binney Scott.
This firm held the important agency for the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, one of the earliest banks to establish an agency in Colombo.
In 1871 the firm of Alex Sc Binney Scott closed down and such business as they had was taken over by Alston Scott & Co. (see under No. 2).

P#89-91 SHAND, C. & CO. The initials on these tokens were identified by Lowsley (No. 31).
Charles Shand, a nephew of Sir William Reid who was the proprietor of Spring Valley, Badulla, came to Ceylon on the advice of his uncle and he, along with a J.L.R. Shand, took up coffee planting at Spring Valley. From 1845 to 1849 their names appear as planters. After this date Charles appears to have commenced business as a merchant in Colombo with the name C. Shand & Co. ‘The other partner being J.L.R. Shand. In 1853 his name appears as the Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce.
Lowsley relates that they became bankrupt in 1875 after the failure of Alexander Collie & Co. of Manchester. It has not been possible to establish if the firm had an office in Galle, nor has it been possible to identify the meaning of the initials P.S. and S.S. which occur on two other tokens issued by them.

P#93 SOYSA C. H. de. This token was issued by Charles Henry de Soysa who was a posthumous knight. He was a great benefactor and philanthropist and his statue was erected in the Cinnamon Gardens, Colombo.
He was the son of Jeronis de Soysa of Moratuwa, who, whilst trading in Kandy, purchased from the Government the King's Gardens at Hanguranketa. The gardens were planted with coffee and brought him his great wealth, which his son, Charles Henry, distributed philanthropically for the benefit of Ceylon in later years. Charles Henry was a very successful business man and owned very many valuable properties all over the island. Before the news reached Ceylon of the bestowal of a Knighthood he died and his wife was given authority to be called Lady Soysa until her death.

P#94-96 STEUART, G. & CO. The firm of George Stenart & Co. merchants, bankers, estate and commission agents, was first started in 1835 by Captain James Steuart who was at that time Master Attendant of Colombo. On its becoming known that he was engaged in private trade he was ordered by the Government to cease his connections. Other arrangements had to be made and in 1839 he handed over his business to his brother, Joseph Steuart, a Master Mariner. Joseph died in 1843 and a younger brother, Captain George Steuart, assumed control and from that time the name of the firm was George Steuart & Co. James Steuart retired from Government service in 1855. He died in England in 1870 aged 70. Captain George Steuart retired from the firm in 1863 and died in England in 1896 at the age of 88.
The main business of the firm has been that of estate agency work. As their minted token indicates, the firm had Wekande Mills (Slave Island, Colombo) which employed over 1,000 hands engaged in curing coffee, cinchona, etc.

P#97-99 SWAN, J. & CO. From an early directory it is found that J. Swan was a planter in 1845 on an estate called Morankande, Harispattu, in Central Province. In 1848 he had joined a firm styled Swan, Keir & Co. In 1849 he was the Secretary of the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce but in 1850 was its Chairman. In 1855 he was living at Marandhan and, as the Marandhan token bears the date 1856, he seems by then to have carried on business under his own name as James Swan & Co.
The St. Sebastian Mills token is associated with the first coconut oil mills established in Colombo in 1832, which Ackland & Boyd (1829-1848) acquired from the Ceylon Government. These mills were first started by Governor Sir Robert Wilmot Horton, Bart (23 Oct. 18316 Nov. 1837), and actually ran on Government account for a short time. Considerable progress was made in the manufacture of oil, and Ackland Sc Boyd introduced into the mills the first oil machinery in Ceylon worked by steam.
As Ackland & Boyd went into liquidation in 1848 it would seem that the mills then passed into the hands of James Swan & Co. James Swan died in 1865 and the name of the firm disappears from the directories after that date.

P#102 TATHAM & CO. Very little can be traced of this firm. In 1843 a Robert Dawson established himself as a merchant, estate and coal agent. In 1854 Thomas Dickson joined him and the firm became Dawson, Dickson & Co. The partners parted company in 1860 and Thomas Dickson started the firm under the name Thomas Dickson & Co. with Christopher Tatham as partner. The name was again changed in 1863 to Dickson, Tatham & Co.
Tatham was a nephew of Duncan Dunbar, the millionaire owner of the Dunbar Line of first class sailing ships.
Thomas Dickson retired in the early 1860s and Tatham took over the entire business. The management of the firm under Christopher Tathain was not a success and it went into liquidation in 1866.
The Suduwelle Mills were at a later date the stores of Mackwoods & Co. The tokens appear to have been issued after Dickson left Ceylon in 1861 and while Tatham was the sole proprietor.

P#104-105 VOLKART BROTHERS. The firm of Volkart Brothers was founded in 1851 at Winterthur, Switzerland, and. Bombay, India, by the brothers S. Volkart and J. G. Volkart. The intention of the brothers was to establish direct commercial relations between India and the continent of Europe. At the outset the firms business was confined to the import of raw cotton and the export of manufactured goods to the Indies.
On the 1st October, 1857, a branch office was opened at Colombo. Its business activity embraced the export of coconut oil, coffee, cinnamon, cotton and pearls. This was later extended to all forms of Ceylon produce and a large Agency business for shipping and insurance.
As their tokens indicate, they established two oil mills, one at Grandpass and the other at Maradana. In later years the Maradana mills were moved to Mutwal.

P#106 WALKER, J. & CO. The founder of the firm was John Walker, a native of the village of Dounc, Perthshire, Scotland, and an engineer and inventor of exceptional ability. He came to Ceylon in 1842 and in 1854 commenced business as a manufacturer of coffee machinery at Kandy.
In 1862, William Walker, his brother, also a man of parts, came to Ceylon and became a partner in the business. The firm was originally situated in Trincomalee Street, Randy, and with the arrival of his brother the title of the business became John Walker & Co.
The firm was later situated at Bogambra, Randy. The token may have been issued for use there as they employed 500 hands. In 1870 Ceylon witnessed an unparalleled prosperity from its coffee plantations and the firm opened several branches in the up country planting districts. Owing to the growing importance of Colombo the firm removed its headquarters to Colombo in 1881.

P#107-110 WALL, George & Co. These tokens are associated with the name of George Wall who was perhaps the greatest of all Englishmen in Ceylon public life. His name is still perpetuated in the street name — Wall Street, Kotahena, and by a fountain in Cinnamon Gardens, Colombo. He was born in Lancashire in 1820 and arrived in Ceylon in 1846 (see notes to Token Nos. 20 and 21). A man of great physical strength he is said to have felled in the forests alongside the best axemen of the day. He was the visiting agent to several up country coffee estates. Wall was the first Englishman to occupy the chair of the Planters' Association of Ceylon, a position he occupied on ten occasions until 1884. He sat in the Legislative Council of Ceylon and ventilated the grievances and claims of the colony. He led an agitation for reform of the legislature and assisted in the home agitation against the Ceylon Paddy Tax. He was an astronomer and a botanist. At one time he was reputed to possess the best collection of ferns in the world. A fine writer, he took a constant share in the local polemics, until he occupied the Editorial Chair of the Ceylon Independent newspaper. He fell ill in 1894 at the age of 74 and had to go to England to enter St. Thomas Hospital where he died on 15th December, 1894.
In 1850 George Wall opened public offices in Colombo and in 1853 he took in two partners. By 1863 the business had grown into an important concern with no fewer than twelve European assistants in the office.
The continued spread of leaf disease in the coffee plantations and the difficulty of recovering cash advances seriously affected the firm and in August, 1879, they suspended payment. Simultaneously with the suspension, a new firm was founded in order to retain some part of the old business. This new firm operated under the name of Courthope Bosanquet & Co.

OCR put online at LakdivcCoins Collection website, extracted from
* The Coins of British Commonwealth of Nations to the end of the reign of George VI 1952
Part 2 - Asian Territories by F. Pridmore Spink & Son Ltd., 1965. Ceylon Tokens

See Also
* Coins and Tokens of Ceylon, Lieut. Col B. Lowsley, Num. Chron. Sr III Vol. XV, 1895.