Ceylon Tokens

by Col. B. Lowsley,

1895 Numismatic Chronicle Series III Vol. XV p. 247-268 pl. IX

43. The recently published exhaustive works on seventeenth and eighteenth-century tokens, by Messrs. Williamson and Atkins 3 respectively, show the high importance now attached by some collectors to such coins.
Though the issues of the East India Company and the royal coinages may be useful as illustrating the numismatic annals of Ceylon, we must look to the Tokens to give most valuable supplementary evidence concerning periods when the regal coinage proved inadequate to requirements, and each token has its story to relate as regards the business arrangements of some firm or individual at some bygone period. Such information would otherwise often be lost to posterity.
The Ceylon tokens were mainly struck in the prosperous times of coffee cultivation. The sum to be paid for a certain fixed task in coffee picking determined the value. This amount was generally 4½d., or about 18 to 19 cents for picking half a cwt. of clean coffee, and a store-woman was expected to do this as a day's work.
The prosperous coffee days of Ceylon are gone, and tea planting flourishes instead. The 12½-cent silver pieces from India, and the 5-cent, 1-cent, and ½ cent and ¼ cent Ceylon copper coins of the 1870 mintage, and again those of twenty and twenty-one years later, have superseded tokens.
Mr. Atkins in his work gives only five tokens and one countermarked coin for Ceylon.
I obtained in Ceylon, and have in my collection, forty-three varieties of tokens and three kinds of countermarked coins. The incompleteness of any book compiled at home, and without facility of access to local sources of information, is, in this branch of numismatics, very apparent.
In addition to the forty-three English-struck copper Ceylon tokens in my collection, I have several bearing native characters which I do not propose to describe or to include in my list.
The tokens marked * have been already described in works on Ceylon coins. All the rest are unpublished.
It may be mentioned that no copper tokens have ever been struck for the Government factories.

Editors Note: Added Pridmore P # to Lowsley Numbers 1-45 and made minor corrections to descriptions based on images in that catalog.

1. P# 3
Obv. - A . A.

,with line beneath; the whole within a dotted circle.
Rev. - 3

within a dotted circle, the figure 3 coming above the word ANNAS, and with a line between.
This is in copper, and rather larger than a farthing. Three annas would be equal to 4½d., or rather more than 18 cents, the price usually paid in Ceylon to a woman for picking half a bushel of clean coffee. This is the only token I met with for Ceylon which had Indian currency inscribed upon it. No evidence as to the firm which struck these tokens was forthcoming.
Weight about 50 grains.

2. P# 88
Obv. - A & B. SCOTT & CO.
a stag's head erased.
an elephant standing on a scroll. [P1.IX.1.]
A brass token well executed. For a description of this token and information respecting its issue see note to the following one, No. 3, issued by the same firm.
Weight about 126 grains.

3. P# 2
a long ornamental scroll.
Rev. - - Blank
A lead token elliptical in shape.
The brass tokens of this old Ceylon firm (No. 2, as above described) were struck in 1859 by Messrs. Ralph Heaton and Sons, to the order of Messrs. A. and B. Scott & Co., at that time occupying, the Borella Mills, Ceylon, which were pulled down in 1883. In 1871 Mr. Binny Scott retired from the firm, selling his business to Messrs. Alstons, Scott, & Co., who took over the brass tokens then remaining, and used them concurrently with their own leaden ones, as issued for the Hunupitiya Mills, opposite the Circular. These mills at that time employed about 50 men and 600 women and children.
The tokens, paid daily, were redeemable every Saturday, the brass one representing 6d. before the change of currency and issue of the copper cent series of 1870, but afterwards 25 cents, and the leaden one similarly 4½d. or 18½ cents.
It cannot be ascertained precisely in what year the leaden tokens (No. 3) were issued, but the firm was founded in 1843, and it is supposed that these tokens were issued about five years afterwards, namely, in 1848.
A good woman-picker could earn about four of the 6d. tokens in a week. The tokens were issued when the bag of clean picked coffee was given in, and were redeemable by current regal coinage on their being presented.
The spelling Columbo, as on the lead token, indicates that it must have been struck quite forty-five years ago.
At the present date there is only sufficient coffee produced in Ceylon to keep a few of the old mills partially employed. Tea cultivation has taken the place of that of coffee, and the old coffee-mills have been for the most part pulled down or converted to other purposes, such as pressing cinchona and balking and packing tea and cocoa.
The weight of the lead token is about 72 grains.

4. P# 10
Obv. - G.B.
Rev. - - Blank
A well-struck copper token. This must have been issued by some firm at Kandy, for I met with several specimens there, and none at any other place in the island. Its workmanship indicates that it was struck in England, and it is nearly as large as our bronze penny, but much thinner. I could learn nothing about it from local inquiries. It was presumably a token of the coffee picking days.
Weight about 124 grains.

5. P# 20
Obv. - C. P. C.
Rev. - - Blank
A copper token larger than a farthing, acquired at Colombo. The C. P. C. is within a beaded circle, and there is also a beaded circle on the reverse. This token is well struck, doubtless minted in England, and is of the coffee picking days; but I am unable to trace the name of the firm which issued it.
Weight about 94 grains.

6. P# 14
Rev. - 1
A copper token of about the size of a bronze penny. These tokens were struck in England about the year 1873, and represented 17 cents each.
The Union Mills, now the property of Messrs. Carey, Strachan & Co., formerly belonged to Messrs. MacLachlan & Mackenzie, who became insolvent in 1869 or 1870. They are situated in Union Place, Slave Island, Colombo.
The weight of this token is about 175 grains.

7. P# 61
in two lines.
Rev. - LEE, HEDGES, & CO.
* 1867 *
a tea-plant.
A well-struck copper token minted in England.
The Colpetty Mills, near Colombo, formerly employed about 1,000 hands, and the value of the tokens issued in 1867 was 4½d. each, or about the pay of a day's work for a woman.
The weight is about 118 grains.
The token next following was also issued by the above named firm.

8. P# 62
a foliate star within a wreath of tea-leaves.
Rev. - LEE, HEDGES, & CO.
* 1876 *
a tea-plant. [P1.IX.2.]
These mills are now closed. They employed about a thousand hands in the old coffee-picking days. The value of this token was 4½d. or 18k cents. It is well struck, of yellow brass, and the dies were designed in England.
The property is at present called Vavasseur & Co.'s Mills, and is in Dean's Road, Maradana.
Weight about 134 grains.

9. P# 45
Obv. - G. & D. with a numeral underneath.
Rev. - - Blank
Rather a poorly struck copper token of the coffee-picking times, acquired at Colombo. I am unable to identify the firm which issued it. it is rather larger than a farthing and weighs about 96 grains.

10. P# 41
Obv. - --.--
between two lines with a dot in centre of each and within a beaded circle.
Rev. - 4D½ within a beaded circle.
This token was issued by D. V. Gunaratne, a native coffee dealer of Dam Street, Colombo, about the year 1869. It was probably struck in England, and is an ornamental piece rather smaller than a halfpenny. Weight about 64 grains.

11. P# 38
Obv. - J.P.G. within a beaded circle.
Rev. - 4D½
This copper token is of similar design to the last. It was issued by.. Messrs. J. P. Green & Co., of Colpetty Mills, Colombo, in 1858, and was struck in England.
As in other cases, the 4½d. represents 18k cents, which is the price paid for picking half a hundred-weight of clean coffee.
Weight about 55 grains.

12. P# 46
Obv. - COLOMBO * around JPJ at center, within two circles, the outer one beaded.
Rev. - Cents * around 19 at center. within inner linear circle, the outer one beaded. [P1.IX.8.]
This very neat copper token was struck in England for Mr. James Perera Jayatilleka, who had a store in Dam Street, Colombo, and retired in 1880.
The date of issue of the token was 1876, and it represents about the usual price paid for picking half a bag of clean coffee.
Weight about 64 grains.

13. P# 53
Obv. - K. D. & Co. in monogram within a beaded circle.
Rev. - An elephant facing left within a beaded circle.
This copper token is bored for suspension.
The letters on the obverse stand for Keir, Dundas & Co., and the token was issued for the St. Sebastian Mills, Colombo (opposite side of the canal to the Ceylon Company's mills).
This with the two following specimens was designed by Captain C. E. H. Symons, late R.A. All three were struck in London in the year 1866.
They were tariffed at the usual value, viz., 4½d. or 18½ cents.
Weight about 111 grains.

14. P# 52
Obv. - K. D. & Co. in monogram within a beaded circle.
Rev. - - A ship in full sail to left, within a beaded circle. [P1.IX.4.]
Struck by the same firm of Keir, Dundas & Co., for the Smallpass Mills, Colombo. [See notes to No.13.]
Weight about 111 grains.

15. P# 54
Obv. - K. D. & Co. in monogram within a beaded circle.
Rev. - A tortoise facing left within a beaded circle. [P1.IX.5.]
This token is bored for suspension.
It was used at Uplands Mills, Mutwall, Colombo, where the celebrated tortoise is, and is said to have been for some centuries past. The grounds are known to the natives as ``Arma Tortuni,''or Tortoise Gardens.
This is a beautifully struck token, equal to the two preceding ones; it is of the same nominal value and was issued under similar conditions.
Weight about 111 grains.

16. P# 63
Obv. - L
(a number)
Rev. - - Blank
Struck for the Hultsdorf Mills, Ceylon. An extremely thin tin token in use about the year 1855, and discontinued in the year 1872.
Each of these tokens represented 9d., and was given for the picking of a hundred-weight of coffee.
The number stamped on the reverse was a check against fraud.
There was often, but not always, a rough hole for suspension.
About the size of a penny. Weight 23 grains.

17. P# 64
a Ceylon boat with spreaders under sail.
Rev. - G.W.L. in ornamental monogram. [P1.IX.6.]
A token made of red vulcanite, executed in England and introduced at the Hultsdorf Mills in 1872.
It is well designed and struck. It represented the price paid for picking a hundred-weight of coffee at the greatly reduced rate of 25 cents a hundred-weight. The use of these curious tokens was discontinued in 1891, and they are now very rarely met with, but I am told that they have been occasionally used by Moorish gamblers as chess-men for their peculiar chess-boards.
Weight about 66 grains.

18. P# 68
Obv. - M. M.
Rev. - - A wheel.
A roughly struck thin token of about the size of a bronze penny.
Said to have been issued by the firm MacLachlan, Mackenzie & Co., of Colombo, which became insolvent in 1870.
Weight about 136 grains.

19. P# 86
Obv. - S. & C O.between ornamental scrolls.
Issued by Sabonadière & Co., to whom the mills belonged in 1877. They have since, in the year 1884, during the coffee crisis, passed to Messrs. Cumberbatch & Co. The token is of copper and finely struck, and represents 18¾ cents.
Prior to 1877 the firm of Sabonadière & Co. used paper chits instead of these tokens. Mr. F. R. Sabonadière, head of the firm, designed the token, and the striking was done at Birmingham.
Weight about 90 grains.

20. P# 87
Obv. - S. & C O.between ornamental scrolls.
A white metal token, issued by Sabonadière & Co., under the same conditions as the last named (No. 19), and of the same nominal value, viz., 18¾ cents; it is also similar in design. These tokens disappeared from use in the coffee crisis of 1884.
These mills passed to the ownership of Messrs. Cumberbatch & Co.
Weight about 82 grains.

21. P# 80
Obv. - J. M. ROBERTSON & CO.
-+- COLOMBO -+-
hole bored in centre for suspension, and
 O Y
placed crosswise around the hole.
Rev. - - A broad belt of very elaborate scroll-work between beaded circles.
These copper tokens were issued about the year 1868 for the Oil-yard Mills, situated in Slave Island, Colombo. The mills employed about one thousand hands. Each token represented 4½d. or 18¾ cents, being the amount paid at that time for picking cwt. of clean coffee.
Messrs. Robertson had the tokens supplied from England by their London agents.
The reasons for the issue of these tokens were the scarcity of copper coins and the complicated nature of the Ceylon currency at that period. They went out of circulation as soon as the copper Ceylon coinage of 1870 was fully established.
They are of about the size of the bronze penny, and weigh about 164 grains.

22. P# 82
Obv. - J. M. ROBERTSON & CO.
-+- COLOMBO -+-
hole bored in centre for suspension, and
 O M
placed crosswise around the hole.
Rev. - - A broad belt of very elaborate scroll-work between beaded circles.
This token was issued, like No. 21, about the year 1868, and is very similar to it in design. The initials around the central hole stand for Vauxhall Mills, which were erected in Vauxhall Street, Slave Island, Colombo.
The remarks on the token issued by Messrs. Robertson for the Oil-yard Mills apply generally to this also.
Of about the size of the bronze penny, and weighing about 164 grains.

23. P# 78
Obv. - --.--
D.P.P&C O.
between two lines with a dot in centre of each and within a beaded circle.
Rev. - 19
within a beaded circle with a line with dot in centre beneath.
A well-struck token with beaded circle on both sides, and in size rather smaller than a bronze halfpenny.
It may have been issued by the firm, David Perera Perera, of Colombo, about 1865, but this identification is uncertain. The specimens which I have came to me from Colombo.
Weight about 64 grains.

24. P# 42
Obv. - --.--
G.R.P&C O.
between two lines with a dot in centre of each and within a beaded circle.
Rev. - 4D½ within a beaded circle.
A well-struck copper token with beaded circles at margin on each side; evidently issued before the copper 5-cent coinage of 1870. It was acquired by me with two other specimens at Colombo, but the initials cannot be identified from local inquiries.
Size rather larger than a farthing and of weight about 60 grains.

*25. P# 33
Obv. - COFFEE PICKER'S CHIT over a bust to left, uncrowned, of Queen Victoria.
in center. [P1.IX.7.]
This well-struck round copper token is Mr. Atkins, p. 199, No. 99.
It must have been issued prior to the 5-cent coinage of 1870, and was probably made in England.
These Portuguese and native establishments are very difficult to trace now, as the names are far more common than the names of English firms, and the establishments usually of less prominence. I was told by Portuguese and natives that Messrs. Pilo Fernando had mills at Slave Island, Colombo, which were pulled down about the year 1872, but my informants could give me no details.
Weight about 70 grains.

*26 P# 34
Obv. - COFFEE PICKER'S CHIT over a bust to left, uncrowned, of Queen Victoria.
2D ¼
in center. [P1.IX.8.]
This copper token, which is of oblong shape, is described by Atkins, p. 199, No. 100. There is, however, the error of 21d., instead of 2½d.-the marking on the token being for half the value of the one previously, described (No. 25).
The oblong shape was doubtless sensibly adopted in order that natives might the more easily understand the payment as given them for picking half a bag or a quarter of a bag of coffee; Nos. 25 and 26 being intended respectively to cover such quantities of work.
See general notes to No. 25, which apply to this token also.
Weight about 62 grains.

27. P# 8
in two lines.
Rev. - - Blank
A copper token about the size of a penny, but not so thick.
These chits were issued at Polwatte Mills in 1842, at the valuation of 4½d. each, but when the currency of Ceylon was changed, in 1870, from sterling to rupees and cents, the value was fixed at 18¾ cents.
Polwatte Mills were demolished in 1886, after the coffee failure, and the tokens marked Polwatty Mills were then transferred for use at the Cotauchena Coffee Mills, employing five hundred and fifty hands, and also the property of Messrs. Baker and Hall.
The weight of this token is about 127 grains.

*28 P# 17
. * .
an elephant facing left within a circle.
. * .
within a circle.
Described by Mr. Atkins, p. 199, No. 98, with the note that this and the two following may have been intended for farthing, halfpenny, and penny respectively. This was not so, however, as the tokens represented payments for picking certain fixed quantities of coffee, and were redeemable on Saturdays by actual cash as allowed for the quantities to which each referred; thus, the A token is said to have represented 2¼d., for a quarter bag (about cwt.); the B token was 4½d., being for half a bag, or cwt.; and the 0 token for 9d., or a full bag, or 1 cwt.
These tokens were struck in London about the year 1866, for use at the St. Sebastian Mills, by Messrs. Maclure, Macdonald & Macgregor. They are well designed and struck. I am told that about twenty years ago specimens of each were exhibited by Mr. Charles Bischoff, at a meeting of the London Numismatic Society.
The St. Sebastian Mills at the time of issue employed about one thousand five hundred hands. The site of these important mills being San Sebastian Hill, Maradana, Colombo.
Weight about 54 grains.

*29. P# 18
. * .
an elephant facing left within a circle.
. * .
within a circle.
The general notes under the preceding token A (No. 28) apply also to this. Token B is double the weight of token A, and represents double the amount or quantity of coffee-picking performed.
Weight about 108 grains.

*30 P# 19
. * .
an elephant facing left within a circle.
. * .
within a circle.
The general notes under token A of this set (No. 28) apply also to this.
Token C is nearly four times the size of token A, and nearly double the token B, and was issued for quantities of work accordingly.
Weight about 195 grains.

31. P# 89
Obv. - C.S.&C O. within a beaded circle.
Rev. - GALLE within a beaded circle.
This copper token is rather larger than kd. It is well struck and of English mintage.
At first I thought that it must have been issued by Messrs. Clarke, Spence & Co., of Galle, but on inquiry about the size I can get no found a second of the representatives of that firm I found this was not the case.
I subsequently ascertained that it was struck for Messrs. 0. Shand & Co., and used by them until they became bankrupt in 1875, after the failure of Alexander Collie & Co., of Manchester.
It represented the usual price paid for picking half a bag of clean coffee.
Weight about 54 grains.

32. P# 22
* 1876 *
a tea-plant at center.
an orange within a wreath of orange-leaves.
A very neat and well-struck copper token. It represented in specie 3 fanams or 18¾ cents.
The design was made in the Ceylon offices of the Colombo Commercial Company, and only 500 specimens were struck, the minting taking place in England. The site of these mills is in the Lake Road.
Weight about 122 grains.

33. P#102
, in three lines, and with ornamental scrolls between the lines and beaded margin.
in two lines between ornamental scrolls.
An extremely well-struck copper token, larger than a bronze halfpenny. The mills are said to have been at Slave Island, Colombo, and the tokens were doubtless issued under the usual conditions and circumstances.
Weight about 134 grains.

34. P# 99
a mill building below JAS SWAN & CO. and above date.
Rev. - Precisely similar to obverse.
A very finely-struck copper token of of a bronze penny.
The firm has long disappeared, and particulars regarding it, nor have I ever found a second specimen.
Weight about 162 grains.

35. P# 96
four circles around 1843.
Rev. - WEKANDE MILLS, with Sinhala and Tamil characters; two women at work; around, two circles.
A beautifully executed copper token, about the size of the bronze penny. The coin above described, although dated 1843, more lately superseded copper countermarked pieces issued at that date and subsequently. In fact, this finely-struck token was not itself issued until 1881, after all the countermarked coins in use by the firm had been called in. Its value was 4½d., or 19 cents. The countermarked coins will be described in section 36.
When the mills were in their most prosperous days, which was in 1881, there were 1,300 hands employed. The mills are worked now for other purposes, and employ about 350 hands.
The above-named token was designed by Mr. Charles Hendry, manager of the mills.
Weight about 123 grains.

36.- P# 94 & 95
Various copper coins current in Ceylon, countermarked G.S.&C O., which stands for GEORGE STEUART & CO., of WEKANDE MILLS, COLOMBO.
In the year 1843, Messrs. Steuart having then no tokens, countermarked various copper Coins. These coins were usually countermarked on both sides with G. S. & Co., but occasionally only one side was so Countermarked.
I have specimens as follows with this countermark :-
1/48 rix-dollar(1 stiver) of 1802 (English struck) ;
one-stiver of 1815;
halfpennies of 1826, 1827, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1852, 1856, 1856, 1858, and 1859;
half-farthings of 1828, 1830, 1837, 1839, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1847, 1849, 1851, 1862, 1853, 1854, 1856.
The value assigned to the larger countermarked Coins, namely, the English-struck stivers of 1802 and 1815, and the halfpennies, was 6d., and the value assigned to the half-farthings as countermarked was 4½d.
No other firm in Ceylon adopted this system of extensive countermarking to the same extent as Messrs. George Steuart & Co., and they usedĽ these counter marked tokens for thirty-eight years. Specimens are now very rare.

37. P#104
a neatly cut circular hole for suspension, with a circle around.
Rev. - - Blank
This is a large circular token, or chit, of copper, about two inches in diameter, but very thin.
It was struck at Winterthur, Switzerland, by order of the Company, about the year 1872.
It was circulated at the value of 18 ¾. cents, the then equivalent for 4½d. It is of a form more like a ticket than a token.
The Grandpass Mills employed over 500 hands. The weight of this token is about 152 grains.

38. P#105
a neatly cut circular hole for suspension, with a circle marked around.
Rev. - - Blank
This large token resembles No. 37, but is of bright brass instead of copper, and much thicker.
Like the former token of this firm, it was struck at Winterthur, Switzerland, about the year 1872, and was also current for 18¾ cents, or 4½d.
The Maradana Mills, for which the above token was struck, were the first mills where the firm of Messrs. Volkart Brothers ever cured coffee. It may be added that this firm also owned the Mutwall Mills, but it never struck any special token for them, but used there the tokens struck for Maradana Mills, as above described.
The Mutwall Mills also employed 500 hands. The weight of the token is 240 grains.

39. P#111
Obv. - M.W.&C O within a beaded margin.
Rev. - 4D½ within a beaded margin.
A fine English-struck copper token, rather less in size than the bronze halfpenny.
This token was issued by the firm of Mathes Williams & Co., about the year 1868. Their mills in which the tokens were used were in Dam Street, Colombo.
The token represented the amount due for the specified quantity of clean picked coffee as before described. The mills have long disappeared.
Weight about 63 grains.

40. P#106
Obv. - (a number>
in two lines, with the number on each token below a hole for suspension.
Rev. - - Blank
A roughly struck brass token in use by Messrs. Walker, Sons & Co. (late John Walker & Co.) of Kandy7. It is used by this firm as indicating payment due for time or hours of labour, the firm being one of ironmongers and machinists, and often sending engine-fitters, &c., out to work.
It hardly comes within the range of the old-time Ceylon tokens, but I had better perhaps include it as it is closely allied to these in some respects.
Weight' about 82 grains.
7 Messrs. Walker, Sons & Co., of the Colombo Iron Works, The Fort, Colombo, employing 400 hands, are connected with the above-named firm. They make use of a plain brass ticket with a hole in it, as representative of money value for work done by time.

41. P#108
Obv. - G. W. & C O. in ornamental monogram within a beaded margin.
Rev. - M in ornamental work.
The G. W. & Co. stands for Messrs. George Wall & Co., the Owners of a mill in the coffee-picking days.
The token is English struck and well designed. Mr. George Wall, now the editor of the Ceylon Independent newspaper, was formerly senior partner in the firm.
The copper token, as above described, was given of late years the value 12½-cents, which is 1/8th of a rupee, and I am told that this was due to the altered conditions of coinage as brought about by the issue of the copper cent, &c., series of date 1870.
Mr. George Wall kindly informed me as regards the tokens that ``they were used, just as in a few other cases in Ceylon, as convenient representatives of the customary day's pay or day's task. They were cashed on Saturdays, and in the meantime had often passed from hand to hand at the value they represented; this was 4½d., or its equivalent in rupee currency during the time they were in use.''
The token was issued about the year 1866.
Weight about 122 grains.

42. P#110
Obv. - G. W. & C O. in ornamental monogram within a beaded margin.
Rev. - - Blank
This token, struck at the same time as the last described (No. 41), is rather smaller in size than the bronze halfpenny.
It was struck in England for the firm of Messrs. George Wall & Co. It had lately only the value of 10 cents, but in the case of this and the preceding token there was an alteration from the original value due to altered currency and changed circumstances of issue.
See the general remarks to No. 41.
Weight about 68 grains.

43. P#117
Obv. - A capital letter, or two capital letters, the whole alphabet being employed, with a number.
Rev. - - Blank
A rough elliptical token in tin, at present in use at the Wellawatta Spinning and Weaving Mills, about four miles from Colombo.
Weight about 58 grains.

44. P#113
A thick 2-stiver piece (marked 24) of date 1811, countermarked. on the reverse with the figure 4, and the same in Sinhala. The surface of the reverse was polished before the countermark was added, which gave a double value to the coin. The side with the elephant and date has not been interfered with.

45. P#114
A thick 2-stiver (marked 24) copper piece of the Ceylon Government of a similar type to the last described, with the obverse (elephant side) entirely obliterated and much polished and the figure 3, for 3 stivers, stamped thereon, together with the same in Sinhala. The reverse has not been interfered with.
This and the preceding token were doubtless thus countermarked to give higher value to existing copper coins at the time when small change was scarce.

# 1 - #18. Lankan Coins

#19. - #42. Colonial Era Coins


According to Scaife(1953), Barzillai Lowsley was gazetted 1962 June 25th, as a Lieutenant of the Royal Engineers, and after being stationed in Barbados was sent to Colombo Ceylon, as a Lieutenant Colonel. Mr Lowseley appears to have retired from active life shortly after his Ceylon sojourn, and apparently went to live in Jersey, where he died about 1896.

3 The Coins and Tokens of the Possessions and Colonies of the British Empire, by James Atkins, published by Bernard Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly, 1889.

OCR put online at LakdivcCoins Collection website, extracted from
* Coins and Tokens of Ceylon, Lieut. Col B. Lowsley, Num. Chron. Sr III Vol. XV, 1895.
See Also
* The Coins of British Commonwealth of Nations to the end of the reign of George VI 1952
Part 2 - Asian Territories by F. Pridmore Spink & Son Ltd., 1965. Ceylon Tokens
* Oriental Coins AD 600 - 1979 by Michael Mitchiner 1979