Ancient Lanka - Indo-Roman

Third and Fourth-brass found in Lanka

These coins are Roman or Indo-Roman coins found in the 1990's in Akurugoda, which is in Ruhuna, the southern part of the Island of lanka. The coins are mostly AE4 ( under 17 MM ) with few AE3 ( 17 - 21 MM ).

Please help me identify some of the roman coins on this page which are of Na-imana Type named after the place of the first significant find in c. 1918.
i.e. roman coins imitated more crudely in ancient Lanka rather than India. #11 & #12 match Still's description in the Journal of Royal Asiatic Society (J.R.A.S., C.B., XIX, No 58) quoted from Codrington Chapert IV - page 33. ... out of 94 coins of the "Na-imana" type, 68 have the head to the right as usual in the Roman prototype, while in 26 it faces to the left. The lips are full, and the nose straight; the diadem is retained but is often exaggerated, while in four or five it is replaced by a helmet sometimes degenerating into a cap or turban ; in lieu of the legend is found a series of small stars, rows of dots or a serrated line.

The First six coins on this page are Plate Specimens in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, (OBRW) and was obtained from the 2nd Author. They illustrate 35 coins of which 24 ( OBRW G.22 - G.45 ) are identified as Roman and 11 ( OBRW G.46 - G.56 ) as indo-roman.

Mitchiner lists 11 roman coins found in Lanka (A) M#5162 to M#5164 (1.0-1.5 grams) identified as Fouth century Roman and (B) M#5165 to M#5172 (0.2-1.5 grams) as indo-roman circa AD 350-750 of Wheel Type.
Codrington illustrate 19 coins all of which are indo-roman Pl.26 to PL.44 on Plate II.
Codrington says imperial bronzes are mostly of the emperors from Constantine I the Great (A. D. 306 - 337) to Marcian (A. D. 450 - 457 ) lists the following six 4th and 5th Century A.D. Emperors whose late Roman bronze coins have found in Lanka with increasing order of frequency given in fist column of table.
vi Constans A. D. 337 - 350
iv Constantius II A. D. 337 - 361
v Valentinian II A. D. 375 - 392
ii Theodosius I (The Great) A. D. 379 - 395
i Arcadius A. D. 395 - 408
iii Honorius A. D. 395 - 423
ii Theodosius II A. D. 402 - 450
OBRW also lists these Emperors as coins found in Akurugoda.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter15 mm
Thickness mm
Weight2.0 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
OBRW_G25_roman_constantineI_obverse OBRW_G25_roman_constantineI_reverse
Obverse : Bust of the Emperor to the right
Reverse : Two soldiers standing, each holding spear and leaning on shield, between the a standard.

#1 Although listed in OBRW as Roman, two independent experts are of opinion that this is not an prototype late Roman Bronze Coin, but maybe inspired by the coins struck during the rule of Constantine I. The style of the Bust in obverse is different.

This AE4 Fine grade coin found in Akurugoda is Plate Specimen G.25 in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plate 8, and was obtained from the Author.
The description matches G.23 for which it is given and has been equated to G.24 and G.25.

Reverse looks like Three soldiers although the center could be a large standard.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter14 mm
Thickness mm
Weight0.92 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
OBRW_G30_roman_theodosiusI_obverse OBRW_G30_roman_theodosiusI_reverse
Obverse : Bust of the Emperor to the right. Text D N THEODO...
Reverse : Victory to left, trophy on shoulder dragging captive by the hair; monogram of Christ in field,

#2 Identified as a late Roman Bronze Coin of Theodosius I.

This AE4 Very Good grade coin found in Akurugoda is Plate Specimen G.30 in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plate 8, and was obtained from the Author.

The description of reverse is equated to that of G.29 for which it is given in this book.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter18. mm
Thickness mm
Weight2.22 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
OBRW_G46_roman_imit_obverse OBRW_G46_roman_imit_reverse
Obverse : Crude Imitation of the Bust of the Emperor to the right
Reverse : Crude Imitation of two soldiers standing, each holding spear and leaning on shield, between the a standard.
O. Bopearachchi, 1993, p. 81 no 22.

#3 Confirmed as not prototype roman (D.J-M).

This AE3 Good grade coin found in Akurugoda is Plate Specimen G.46 in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plate 8, and was obtained from the Author.
The coin is described in this book.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter14. mm
Thickness mm
Weight1.02 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
OBRW_G50_roman_imit_obverse OBRW_G50_roman_imit_reverse
Obverse : Crude Imitation of the Bust of the Emperor to the left
Reverse : Crude Imitation of two soldiers standing, each holding spear and leaning on shield, between the a standard.

#4 Confirmed as not prototype roman (D.J-M).

This AE4 Good grade coin found in Akurugoda is Plate Specimen G.50 in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plate 8, and was obtained from the Author.
The description of reverse is equated to that of G.46 for which it os given and G.47, G.48 and G.49.

SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter13 mm
Thickness mm
Weight1.69 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
OBRW_G52_roman_imit_obverse OBRW_G52_roman_imit_reverse
Obverse : Crude Imitation of the Bust of the Emperor to the right
Reverse : Crude Imitation of cross within wreath type.
O. Bopearachchi, 1993, p. 81 no 24.

#5 Confirmed as not prototype roman (D.J-M). Similar to Mitchiner #5171 described as Obv: Bust Right; Rev: Wheel Type.

This AE4 Good grade coin found in Akurugoda is Plate Specimen G.52 in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plate 8, and was obtained from the Author.
The description of reverse is equated to that of G.51 for which it is given in this book.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter13 mm
Thickness mm
Weight0.54 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
OBRW_G56_roman_imit_obverse OBRW_G56_roman_imit_reverse
Obverse : Crude Imitation of the Bust of the Emperor to the right
Reverse : Svastika within a border
O. Bopearachchi, 1993, p. 81 no 25.

#6 Confirmed as not prototype roman (D.J-M).

This AE4 Good grade coin found in Akurugoda is Plate Specimen G.56 in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plate 9, and was obtained from the Author.
The description of reverse is equated to that of G.55 for which it is given in this book.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter15. mm
Thickness mm
Weight1.0 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
RW_roman_g31_obverse RW_roman_g31_reverse
Obverse : Bust of the Emperor to the right
Reverse : Winged victory to left, dragging captive

#7 Identified as not prototype roman (D.J-M). Similar to OBRW G.31

This AE4 Good grade coin found in Akurugoda is similar to Indo-roman coins G.46 to G.56 illustrated in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plates 8/9, and was obtained from the Author.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter15. mm
Thickness mm
Weight1.35 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
RW_roman_g45_obverse RW_roman_g45_reverse
Obverse : Bust of the Emperor to the right. Faint outline
Reverse : two soldiers standing, each holding spear and leaning on shield, between the a standard.

#8 Identified as prototype roman (D.J-M).

This AE4 Poor grade coin found in Akurugoda is similar to Roman coin G.45 illustrated in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plate 8, and was obtained from the Author.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter13. mm
Thickness mm
Weight1.2 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
RW_roman_lett_obverse RW_roman_lett_reverse
Obverse : Bust of the Emperor to the right. (D N) ARCAD(IUS)
Reverse : In four lines VOT X MVLT X(X)

#9 Identified as prototype roman (D.J-M) Arcadius

This AE4 Very Good grade coin found in Akurugoda is similar to Roman coins G.23 to G.45 illustrated in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plate 8, and was obtained from the Author.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter13. mm
Thickness mm
Weight1.15 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
RW_roman_rhead_obverse RW_roman_rhead_reverse
Obverse : Bust of the Emperor to the right
Reverse : Victory to left, dragging captive by the hair

#10 Identified as prototype roman (D.J-M). Is the Emperor Honorius ?

This AE4 Good grade coin found in Akurugoda is similar to Roman coins G.23 to G.45 illustrated in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plate 8, and was obtained from the Author.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter15. mm
Thickness mm
Weight1.15 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
RW_roman_rhead_obverse RW_roman_rhead_reverse
Obverse : Bust of the Emperor to the right
Reverse : Not clear

#11 Identified as not prototype roman (D.J-M). Is it of Naimana Type ?

This AE4 Poor grade coin found in Akurugoda is similar to Indo-roman coins G.46 to G.56 illustrated in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plates 8-9, and was obtained from the Author.


SPECIFICATIONS
AlloyBrass
TypeStruck
Diameter14. mm
Thickness mm
Weight0.9 gms
ShapeRound
EdgePlain
DieAxis
RW_roman_rhead_obverse RW_roman_rhead_reverse
Obverse : Bust of the Emperor to the right
Reverse : not clear

#12 Identified as not prototype roman (D.J-M). Is it of Naimana Type ?

This AE4 Poor grade coin found in Akurugoda is similar to Indo-roman coins G.46 to G.56 illustrated in the 1999 catalog Ruhuna. An Ancient Civilization Re-visited by Bopearachchi and Wickramasinhe, Plates 8/9, and was obtained from the Author.


The coins were scanned at 600dpi and are displayed at 400dpi. They were obtained in 2000 August from Rajah Wickremasinhe author and collector in Lanka
Jean-Michel Dumont(D.J-M), Brussels kindly identified the prototype roman coins (#2,#8 #9 #10) from the rest in a southasia-coins egroup. message.