Catalogue of Coins

in the

Provincial Museum
Lucknow

by C. J. Brown
Professor of English, Canning College, Lucknow

Coins of the Mughal Emperors

In Two Volumes
Published for the United Provinces
Government

Oxford
at the Clarendon Press
1920.


AURANGZEB 'ALAMGIR251-256

No.MintDateObverseReverse

AR SILVER
2874
Surat
Bandar-i-
mubarak
1070
ahad

2879Surat1070
--
As on No 2874, but
left of
28841073
--
As on No 2874, but
2906
2907
Surat1089
21
As on No 2879, but
under
As on No 2884, but
over
in the top line.
29101089
22


in
2975
2976
Surat1111
44
As on No 2910.
in
As on No 2910.

M. 90


AURANGZEB 'ALAMGIR257

No.MintDateObverseReverse

AR SILVER
2982
2983
Surat1113
45
As on No 2910.
in
As on No 2910.

M. 90
2984Surat1113
46
As on No 2910.
in
As on No 2910.

M. 90
2985Surat1113
46
As on No 2910.
in
As on No 2910.

M. 193


Figures do vary considerably in shape for example 5, and occasionally tip to the right like for example 6 and 7.

Arabic is written and read from right to left from bottom to top of page.

sikkah zad dar jehan cho bedr monir
minted coin in world like shining full moon
Shar Aurangzeb Alamgir
Ruler throne-adorner universe-grasper
Surat Bandar-i-mubarak
Epithet of Surat, Blessed port.
sanat julus maimanat manus
The year of the accession associated with prosperity.

The Transcript and Translation of the Arabic on the 1701 Surat Rupee treasure coin from the Great Basses Reef, Lanka is as follows.

Obverse
Arabictranscripttraslation
gir-Alam grasper-universe
1113 1113
kzib-Aurang adorner-throne
Shar ruler
monir bedr cho zadshining moon-full like minted
sikkah coin
jehan dar world in

Reverse
Arabictranscripttraslation
manus associated-with
maimanat prosperity
           Four dots
around Cross        46
Mint Mark        46
julus sanat regnal year
zuriba struck-at
Surat Surat

Descended from Jenghiz Khan, Akbar the Great reigned from 1556 A.D., when he was thirteen. During this time he conquered large part of India, and by his wise toleration he built a lasting Empire despite all the diversities of race and religion. Following him as Moghul Emperors was his son Jehangir in 1605 A.D and grandson Shar Jahan in 1628 A.D. who built the Taj Mahal mausoleum for his wife Mumtaz Mahal. In 1659 A.D. (1069 A.H.) his son Shar Aurangzib 'Alamgir (``throne-adorner, universe-grasper'') ascended to the throne. In this reign the Moghul Empire reached its greatest territorial extent. At the age of almost ninety, when Aurangzib died in 1707 A.D. (1118 A.H.) religious intoleration had undermined Akbar's policy for unity and the Empire disintigrated in a short time.

Aurangzib used 47 different mints and introduced a new style of coin, which lasted throuh end of Moghul Period. The horizontals on the obverse of the coin are formed, the upper one by Shar (as is usual) and the lower by sikkah As long as all the wirds got on the coin they were not too concerned about the order of the words in the couplet.

During the 48 year rule of Aurangzib the Surat Mint alone issued over 85 varieties rupee coins listed in Brown's Catalog of coins in the Lucknow Museum. Since Anno Hegirea (A.H.) doesn't change at the same time as the regnal year, most years have two varieties. The order of rows and the location of the A.H. date change a few times over this period. The Ahad (first) regional year issue (1070 A.H.) (#2874) has the Surat Mint epitat is listed in krause as KM#300.85, the rest without epitat as KM#300.86. On the reverse Surat was written at the bottom line in #2879, and the last two lines are switched with zuriba (struck-at) at the bottom line in #2884 of 1073 A.H. The reginal year is written over the location of which moves from the topline to the third in reginal year 22 and the last two lines switched back in #2910 of 1089 A.H. On obverse the year in A.H is in . From 1096 A.H. of reginal year 28 (#2933) a series of eleven Mint ornaments are used on reverse. Two types of such Mint marks appear on 1113/46. Brown's #193 (cross around central circle with 4 filled dots in the quadrents) is used on (#2985) the A.H. 1113 of reginal year 46 of the greatbases wreck coin.

Comments: E-mail Kavan U. Ratnatunga